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20/Dec/2018

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Best Resouces

(ADHD)

 

Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, is a disorder of self-control. It includes difficulties in impulse control, attention, concentration, and activity level. These problems derive from the child’s inability to control his behavior according to the passage of time, the objectives to be achieved and the demands of the environment. It is imperative to point out that ADHD is not a normal phase of growth that every child must overcome, nor is it the result of an unproductive educational style, nor is it a problem due to the child’s “malevolence”.

ADHD poses problems not only for the individual but also for the family and school and often causes hindrance in achieving personal goals. It is a problem that generates distress and stress in parents and teachers who are not prepared for managing the child’s behavior.

Parents are used to seeing how other people react to the behavior of their hyperactive child. In the beginning, strangers tend to ignore restless behavior, frequent interruptions during adult speeches and violation of common social rules. Faced with repeated manifestations of the absence of behavioral control of the child, these people try to put themselves to restrain the excessive enthusiasm, failing that, they conclude that the child is intentionally rude and destructive. Perhaps parents are also accustomed to the conclusions to which outsiders come, such as The child’s problems are due to the way he was educated. If more discipline, limitations and even some fine punishment are added, their behaviors can be modified. His parents are careless, incapable, excessively tolerant and permissive, and that child is the result of their inefficiency.

ADHD Inattention

Symptoms related to inattentiveness are found in children who, compared to their peers, have evident difficulty in being careful or working on the same task for a sufficiently prolonged period of time. Several consultants argue that the main deficit of the syndrome is represented by the difficulties of attention, which occur both in school/work situations and in social situations. Since the attention construct is multidimensional (selective, maintained, focused, divided), the latest research seems to agree that the most evident problem in ADHD is the maintenance of attention, especially during repetitive or boring activities. These difficulties are also manifested in playful situations in which the child manifests frequent shifts from one game to another, without completing any. At school, there are obvious difficulties in paying attention to details, and the works are incomplete and disordered. Teachers and parents report that children with ADHD seem to not listen or have their minds elsewhere when they are being spoken to directly. Passing close to the desk of a hyperactive child you can be struck by the disorder with which it handles the school material and the ease with which it is distracted by sounds or other irrelevant stimuli.

Hyperactivity

The second feature of ADHD is hyperactivity, which is an excessive level of motor or vocal activity. The hyperactive child shows continuous agitation, difficulty in remaining seated and stationary in its place. According to the reports of parents and teachers, children with ADHD seem to be always on the move both at school and at home, during homework and play. Very often the movements of all the parts of the body (legs, arms, and trunk) are not harmoniously directed towards achieving a goal.

Impulsivity

According to some practitioners, impulsivity is the hallmark of ADHD. Impulsivity manifests itself in the difficulty of delaying a responseinhibiting inappropriate behaviorwaiting for gratification. Impulsive children respond too quickly (to the detriment of the accuracy of their answers), frequently interrupt others when they are talking, they cannot stand in line and wait for their turn. In addition to persistent impatience, impulsivity also manifests itself in engaging in dangerous actions without considering the possible negative consequences. Impulsivity is a feature that remains fairly stable during development and is also present in adults with ADHD.

ADHD Symptoms

The people with ADHD also exhibit other disturbing behaviors due to the interaction between the pathognomonic characteristics of the disorder and their environment.

Aggressive Behaviors: The development of oppositional and provocative traits is a very problematic aspect of the ADHD. In most cases, aggressive behaviors do not reach such severity that they require a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

Cognitive Deficits: Children with ADHD have lower education benefits than their peers, despite having the same intellectual abilities because of impulsiveness, hyperactive behavior, difficulties of attention and cognitive self-regulation within the classroom. The proportion of children with ADHD who have repeated at least one class is three times that of the rest of the school population.

Emotional Disorders: The 25% of cases with ADHD also have comorbidity with anxiety disorders. Another 25% of children with ADHD receive a second diagnosis of Mood Disorder.

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Social Problems: The problems of behavioral self-control also affect interpersonal relationships. Children with ADHD are more often rejected and are the least popular among their classmates. Teachers evaluate them negatively for disruptive behavioral aspect and disrespect for social rules. In structured contexts and in the game, there is a high frequency of both verbal and non-verbal negative behavior, less interaction with mates, low levels of emotional expression and greater social withdrawal followed by aggression. Often children with ADHD, without aggression, do not intentionally exhibit these disturbing behaviors and are sincerely surprised by the negative outcomes that arise from their clumsy actions. Hyperactive children are described by their companions as non-cooperative in group situations, intrusive and in some cases aggressive and provocative.

Development of ADHD

The mean age of onset of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder ranges from 3 to 4 years. However, there are numerous cases presenting the symptoms of ADHD towards 6-7 years.  The manifestation of the disorder can vary according to the quality of relationships with and between family members, the acceptance of the child in the school context, the general cognitive profile (and intellectual in particular), and the presence of other disorders which, can complicate the pathological picture.

ADHD and Infants: Parents often report that children with ADHD are difficult from birth: very irritable, prone to inconsolable crying, easily frustrated, with difficulty sleeping and feeding. Furthermore, these children are less sensitive to rewards and are also more difficult to educate, as they give unpredictable responses to the educational techniques usually used for behavioral control. As a consequence, the impulsivity and the low tolerance to the frustration of the child can generate negative effects on the interaction with the mother, triggering a vicious circle that leads to an accentuation of the symptoms. 

ADHD and Children: During the elementary school years, the child with ADHD is very active and, although he has intelligence equal to that of his peers, shows a behavior not very mature with respect to the chronological age. In situations of play, in which there is ample opportunity for movement, he does not show particular difficulties, while in contexts in which the respect of certain rules is required, the child is labeled as “problematic and difficult to manage”. With an entry into the elementary school, the difficulties increase precisely because of the presence of a set of rules that must be respected and of tasks that must be performed. Both parents and teachers remain a little disconcerted by the enormous variability of their attentive performances. In the classroom, they can follow the lesson for usually only five minutes, while they successfully complete a video game that lasts even half an hour. Also, interpersonal problems, often already present during pre-school age, persist and tend to increase in severity; this is probably because the positive interactions with the companions require, with the progress of age, ever greater social skills, communication, and self-control. 

ADHD and Preadolescents: With age, hyperactivity tends to decrease in terms of frequency and intensity and can be partially replaced by “internalized agitation” which manifests itself mainly with impatience, and continuous changes in activity or body movements. Moreover, with the development, they can generate behavioral traits that further hinder the placement of the child in his social environment.

ADHD and Adolescents/Adults: During adolescence, a slight reduction of the symptoms is observed on average, but this does not mean that the problem is solved, since often other mental disorders are also found, such as depression, antisocial behavior or anxiety. In this age, the problems of identity, of acceptance in the group and of physical development, are problems that do not always manage to be effectively dealt with by a young person with ADHD. The inevitable failures can lead to self-esteem problems, poor self-confidence, or even clinically significant anxiety or depression.

Risk Factors of ADHD

As with other psychological problems, the reason of ADHD is not known. The main factors which are attributed to the cause of ADHD are:

  • Genetics: ADHD usually runs in family. A family history of Intellectual Disability also increases the chances of ADHD.
  • Neurotransmitters: People with ADHD may have an imbalance in certain neurotransmitters (chemicals) of the brain.
  • Brain Changes: Some researches have shown that children with ADHD have a lower level of brain activity. Some other brain imaging studies have shown that some areas of the brain are in the smaller size as compared to brain areas of children without ADHD.
  • Complications during Pregnancy: Poor nutrition, infections, smoking, drinking, and substance abuse during pregnancy, premature birth, and small head size can affect a fetus brain development.
  • Environmental Factors: Toxins, such as lead may affect a child’s brain development.
  • Television: Researchers have found that watching excessive television and screen time can lower the attention span, thus increasing the risk of ADHD.
  • Psychosocial Factors: Conflicting home environment, parental abuse, poor living conditions are also the major risk factor of ADHD.
  • Significant Head Injury: A brain injury or a brain disorder, damage to the front of the brain, called the frontal lobe, can cause problems with controlling impulses and emotions.

Intervention of ADHD

According to the scientific literature, the ideal treatment for ADHD is multimodal, that is, a treatment that involves school involvement, family and child himself, as well to a pharmacological intervention.

ADHD Treatment

Behavioral Techniques: The behavioral approach is characterized by a detailed assessment of the problematic responses and the environmental conditions that elicit and maintain them, strategies to produce a change in the surrounding environment and therefore in the behavior of the parents. These techniques work best when clinicians, parents, and school simultaneously use them, focusing on a range of behaviors.

Parent Training: Parent training has been suggested as a way to improve the functioning of children with ADHD by teaching parents to recognize the importance of relationships with their peers, to teach, in a natural way and when needed, to take an active role in the organization of the child’s social life, and to facilitate the agreement between adults in the environment in which the child is living (teachers and other educators). Parents are taught to give clear instructions, to positively reinforce acceptable behaviors, to ignore some problematic behaviors, and to use punishments effectively.

Social Skills: This type of intervention is included in multimodal treatment. Clinical experience suggests that individual treatment is not always advantageous, this is due to the lack of self-observation present in patients with ADHD. When treatment is conducted in groups, the set of problematic behaviors emerges naturally and can be modified through modeling, practice, feedback, and reinforcements. The use of environments such as schools, rather than clinics or private practice, can increase generalizability. 

More Articles Link Below :

  1. Depression – Clinical Depression (2018)
  2. Anxiety Disorders
  3. Applied Behavior Analysis
  4. REBT

This Article is Written By Anum Farooq

  • Co-Founder & Organizer: PsychologyClinix.com
  • Clinical Psychologist
  • ABA therapist 
  • Researcher
  • Affiliated with NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES and AUTISM RESOURCE CENTER ISLAMABAD

Click HereContact Us for Consultation

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25/Nov/2018

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Neurodevelopmental Disorders are characterized by impaired development that causes adjustment problems. These are distinguished by delay or disturbance in the acquisition of skills in a variety of developmental domains, including motor, social, language, and cognition.

More About Neurodevelopmental Disorders, These are a group of disorders in which the development of the central nervous system is disturbed and it typically manifests in early developmental years which can include developmental brain dysfunction manifested as neuropsychiatric problems or impaired motor function, learning, language or non-verbal communication.

The great diversity of Neurodevelopmental disorders reflects specific deficits which prevent a child having an independent fulfilling life along with having lifelong assistance such as to feed oneself or the ability to walk. The specific limitation of neurodevelopmental disorders prevents an individual to control executive functions or to acquire global intelligence along with social skills.

 

Causes of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

There are various factors which can affect normal brain development before birth. These factors can cause distinct pathology later in life such as:

  • Genetic causes

The genetic mutations and metabolic conditions at conception, for example, Trisomy 21(which is having an extra chromosome) causes Down Syndrome. Genetic causes are basically related to the chromosomal abnormalities.

  • Prenatal Causes and Deprivations

The prenatal causes such as nutritional deficiencies and maternal infections during pregnancy affect developmental delays. Also, deprivation of social and emotional care from the environment. The negligence from the parents during pregnancy can cause the baby to have language and social deprivation which reflects in early developmental years.

  • Perinatal Causes

These are caused by complications that arise during labor, typically a lack of oxygen during vaginal delivery.

  • Postnatal Causes

These refer to factors such as traumatic brain injury, infections like meningitis or exposure to environmental toxins after birth.

 

Types of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

List of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Intellectual Disability

It was formerly known as Mental Retardation. Intellectual disability is characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning that affects everyday living. In addition to the deficit in two or more adaptive skills, the child has IQ of below 70.

 

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

 It is characterized by difficulties in social communication and unusually restricted, repetitive Behavior and interests. The symptoms of ASD are usually recognized at the age of one or two years. In the long run, the problem in social communication can cause difficulties in keeping relationships, maintaining and performing daily tasks. 

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

 ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed disorder in the children. It is characterized by difficulty sustaining attention and/or hyperactivity, impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development. ADHD symptoms appear between the age of 3 and 6 years. It is more common in males than females.

 

Specific Learning Disorder

 The difficulty in understanding or in using language, spoken or written that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations. Specific learning disorder refers to difficulties that affect the acquisition and use of reading, writing, and math skills.

Communication Disorders

 It includes problems related to speech, language, and communication. There are several communication disorders which are mentioned in DSM 5: language disorder, speech sound disorder, childhood-onset fluency disorder (stuttering), pragmatic language impairment (social communication disorder), and other specified and unspecified communication disorders.

Motor Disorders

 These are the disorders of the nervous system that cause abnormal and involuntary movement or actions of the body. These uncontrollable movements can result from the damage to the motor system. The symptoms of motor disorders include tremors, jerks, spasms, contractions or gait problems.

Global Developmental Delay

 GDD usually describes a condition that occurs during the developmental period of a child between birth and 18 years. The child with GDD has a lower intellectual functioning and significant limitations in communication. The main causes of the GDD are child’s genes and chromosomal abnormalities.

Unspecified Intellectual Disability

 It is diagnosed as someone who has an IQ score under 70 and has social and learning problems. Some of the other symptoms include trouble learning, problems with language and other difficulties.

 

Assessment of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

The assessment of neurodevelopmental disorders starts with the process to review with parents the child’s early developmental history and current concerns. There are different assessments procedures for each disorder. The assessment involves intellectual assessment, neuropsychological assessment, and adaptive behavior assessment.

 

Treatment of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

  • Intellectual Disability

The children with intellectual disability can benefit from speech therapy, occupational therapy, and exercises to improve their gross- and fine motor skills.

  • Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

The treatment options of the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) include Behavior and Communication therapies (which include Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA), Educational therapies, Family therapy, Occupational therapy, and Physical therapy. The treatment of ASD also includes Medications to control and help the symptoms.

  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

There are several treatment options to treat the ADHD. Psychotherapy helps the child to open up and tell in detail about their problems. Behavior therapy, Social Skills Training, Parent Skills Training (few techniques include, Immediate rewards, Timeouts, Striving for Success, Togetherness and Stress management techniques (such as meditation, relaxation techniques, and exercise to help manage stress).

  • Specific Learning Disorder

The treatment of Specific learning disorder includes Psychotherapy, Cognitive Therapy, and Behavioral Therapy.

  • Communication Disorder

The main emphasis of the treatment of children with Communication disorder is the prevention and early intervention. The treatment often includes Speech/Language therapy, Audiologist for the hearing test, Individual and Group therapy to improve social skills.

  • Motor Disorder

The treatment of motor disorder involves physical and occupation therapy. Sensory integrated therapy and perceptual motor training are interventions that helped a lot. 

  • Global Developmental Delay

Early interventions for the global developmental delay include Speech and language therapy, Occupational therapy, Physical therapy, and Behavior therapy might help. However, there isn’t any single treatment for a child with GDD.

  • Unspecified Intellectual Disability

The treatment of Unspecified Intellectual Disability involves Physical therapy, Occupation therapy, and Communication Skills Training. 

More Articles Link Below :

  1. Depression – Clinical Depression (2018)
  2. Anxiety Disorders
  3. Applied Behavior Analysis

 

This Article is Written By Anum Farooq

  • Co-Founder & Organizer: PsychologyClinix.com
  • Clinical Psychologist
  • ABA therapist 
  • Researcher
  • Affiliated with NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES and AUTISM RESOURCE CENTER ISLAMABAD

Click HereContact Us for Consultation

Please Leave Comment about our ABA Article Below.

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